Disordered Metal Metabolism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

by William J. Walsh, Ph. D.

At the DAN! 2001 Conference in San Diego, I presented a model which assumes that metallothionein (MT) dysfunction is the primary cause of autism. My model is the culmination of 30 years of experience, focusing on applying the work of Dr. Carl Pfeiffer, a pioneer in using nutrient therapies for chemical imbalances found in behavioral disorders.

A Metallothionein Theory of Autism

While engaged in research at the Argonne National laboratory, I pursued a prison volunteer project that launched me into the middle of the autism epidemic. I have now applied my knowledge about what makes bad guys bad to what causes depression and autism. In 1989, I established the Pfeiffer Treatment Center in Naperville, Illinois, where I am the Chief Scientist. Last year, researchers there studied the results of approximately 100 separate chemical analyses of blood and urine tests from each of 503 patients diagnosed with autism, PDD and Asperger syndrome. Over 99% exhibited abnormal trace metal levels in their blood and urine. Since MT is the primary regulator of these metals, we concluded that an MT disorder is a universal characteristic of autism.

Autism Onset

I propose that autism results from the intersection of two factors: an inborn weakness and an environmental insult. A constitutional vulnerability brings with it tenuous MT support for neuronal development, and hypersensitivities to toxic metals, infections and viruses. Insults during gestation, infancy or early childhood, from a vaccine with thimerosal (a mercury-containing preservative), a virus or an infection, for example, can disable the weak MT protein system, and provoke the onset of autism.

Gestational insults will most likely result in severe autism that is evident at birth. Insults after birth lead to regressive autism, its severity depending upon the developmental stage and degree of insult. After age three, because the brain has matured, insults may result in speech language delays or attention deficits, rather than autism.

What are Metallothionein (MT) Proteins?

Consequences of MT Dysfunction

Correction of MT Dysfunction

I believe that the biochemical and physiological conditions resulting from MT dysfunction are correctable. The Pfeiffer medical team led by Anju Usman, MD, and Mary Hackenser, PA, is searching for the ideal combinations of nutrients to re-enable MT proteins. A two-phase treatment program must include removal of excess copper and toxic metals, followed by long-term maintenance using zinc therapy. Many nutrients are effective in enhancing MT function, and digestive enzymes, probiotics, trace minerals and essential fatty acids are often helpful. Contact a health care professional who can make an appropriate prescription. The result of enhanced MT function will be improved neuronal connections, protection against future toxic metal exposure and reduced gluten-casein sensitivity.


For today’s children with autism, normalizing copper and zinc levels in blood and promoting MT function are essential components of therapy. The best hope for future autism prevention is the development of an MT screening test and early infant screenings for MT proteins. I urge laboratories to develop appropriate tests and hospitals to make them mandatory.

Dr. Walsh’s findings are available in a monograph from the Pfeiffer Treatment Center 630-505-0300 . Order a tape of his DAN! presentation from Instatape at 800-NOW-TAPE. Contact Pfeiffer to check Dr. Walsh’s travel schedule.

[Initially published in New Developments: Volume 7, Number 1 - Fall, 2001]

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